Compressed Air Flow Calculation Formula

Then divide by the volume of the room in cubic feet: In plain English, we’re changing CFM into Cubic Feet per Hour (CFH). This calculator is to determine the speed of sound in humid or moist air (water vapor) according to Owen Cramer, "JASA, 93, p. However, just like a heart can fail because of clogged arteries, a compressor can fail because of improper piping. Please use the calculator below to achieve an understanding of the kWh consumed (or saved) in your compressed air system. Since this is a standardized metric, it’s the best figure to use in comparing air compressors across the board, much like apples to apples. CheCalc Chemical engineering calculations to assist process, plant operation and maintenance engineers. Air Conditioning Calculations - Other Factors Other factors that your contractor will consider to determine the sizing of the cooling capacity include the direction of your room. V S = V A x F P x F T Volume Meter Counter Readings F P *@Volume Corrected F T *@ Corrected for Period Final Initial Difference (V A) 25 psig for Pressure 75°F* Press. The air leakage in a vacuum system should be determined when sizing the vacuum pump by using the following method: Install an accurate absolute pressure vacuum gauge, measuring in Torr (mm Hg absolute). Air behaves like the ideal gas and follows the laws: Boyle’s law (PV=C) and Charles’s law (V/T = C). org Minimize Compressed Air Leaks Leaks are a significant source of wasted energy in a compressed air system, often. The less auspiciously a compressed air pipe is conceived, the higher the performance of a compressor must be in order to build up the required pressure and maintain it. Because most compressed air is used to exert force on some sort of pneumatic device or equipment and fore = “mass X acceleration” the amount of force exerted will depend on the mass flow of the air, the conclusion one would therefore reach is that the only accurate way to evaluate a compressor capacity is to compare the weight flow of air under identical ambient conditions. In order for blow guns, spray guns, air cylinders etc. 746 x hours of operation (per year) x electric rate ($/kwh) / motor efficiency. 33 x 11 x 67 = 243 Nm³/ hour of air. The exiting cold dry compressed air then returns to the Air-to-Air heat exchanger (1) where it is reheated by the incoming air, to prevent sweating in your plant. To calculate the cost of compressed air based on electrical cost alone, use the following formula:. 0 webpage) New Measures. Because of this, the only way to determine the real CFM of your air compressor is to test it yourself. Download 5 excel sheets for medical gases design calculations, Compressed Air, Oxygen, N2O, Vacuum air systems Download Free MEP Calculation Excel Sheets, AutoCAD Drawings, and Training Courses for HVAC, Firefighting, Plumbing and Electrical Systems Design. The correct method of measuring this volume is given in the following standards: ISO 1217, annex C and DIN 1945, Part 1, Appendix F. Flow of Air in Pipes Equation and Calculator. After more than 25 years in the compressed air industry, it still amazes me that many plant personnel and even those who sell compressed air products for a living don't fully understand the relationship between flow, or volume (cfm), and pressure (psig). Pressurized Volume (ft3) A= Effective Area in Square Inches (Valve or Orifice Throat Area x Flow Coefficient). While pumps can work on either liquids or gases, compressors generally work only on gases. When sizing pipe for a compressed air system, keep in mind that without resistance to flow, there is no flow. We designed our flow meters to be easy to use, affordable and complete. I was trying to use following formula: T = Vr (P2 – P1) Po (Acfm) Where: T is time required – min. Formula : compressor power calculation. Pa = standard atmospheric pressure in psia. The compressor then continues to run. Let's calculate the mass flow of air when a value of 1000 SCFM (Standard Cubic Feet per Minute) is used. 15X Nm3/h and the next lower model which gives 0. Compressed air tanks, such as Scuba air tanks, are rated in terms of cu. By buoyancy the air, which has a lower density than the liquid, rises quickly. to work satisfactorily, the compressed air has to be delivered to these devices at the correct PSI (that to generate the force required) and also at the correct flow rate ( so that your force is delivered within the acceptable time frame of the air using device). The diagram below can be used to estimate the flow capacity (normal standard air) in a compressed air pipeline with pressure ranging 0. Gas Calculator for Tube Trailer, Multiple Element Gas Container, MEGC, ISO container, Ground Storage Module, Tank Trailer in industrial gases and speciality gases industries. The formula permits us to calculate the theoretical curves (pressure drop vs. Obtain the air flow and pressure requirements of each tool. Essentia;lly it means that if the air compressor vendor has one model which gives a flow rate of 1. Bernoulli’s equation relates a moving fluid’s pressure, density, speed, and height from Point 1 …. System designers also do a compressed air requirement calculation for bag filters. Pressurized Volume (ft3) A= Effective Area in Square Inches (Valve or Orifice Throat Area x Flow Coefficient). 5*T /(T + 237. English (United States) Currently selected News. Compressed Air Flow Meters: Specifying the Requirements. com's Normal Flow Relations calculator calculates ratios to free stream values accross a normal shock wave, as well as comparing pressure and temperature variations across a normal shock wave given state 1 and state 2. A LOX-LH2 rocket-powered turbine powered the compressor. (cu ft = gal/7. We have offices in Aberdeen, Wishaw, Scotland, Boldon, North East England, and Fareham, South of England. Landfill Pump Flow Rate Calculator. COMPRESSOR DESIGN ENGINEERING CALCULATORS, APPLETS GLOSSARY OF COMPRESSED AIR TECHNOLOGY - Quincy Compressor, Inc. compressed air X (psig + 14. All nozzles showed comparable mass flow rates for the same impact force and the difference was in the order of 5% better than a straight pipe geometry. At the discharge of the compressor, the air pressure is the highest because there are no friction losses associated with moving the air through filters, dryers, and pipe. 5 [Sonic Flow] √ / Formula to fine Flow Coefficient for liquid = ∆/ Where: Cv = Flow Coefficient Q 1 = Gas flow in SCFM at STP P1 = Inlet Pressure – PSIA S = Specific Gravity of Liquid relative to water at 60°F P2 = Outlet Pressure - PSIA Sg = Specific Gravity of gas relative to air. Bubbles make water more durable and able to absorb the caloric output of the fire. Air receiver will not be supplying air when its filling. 95% Purity; High Purity 99. org ) 26 Fig 3 Velocity dia. Figure 4 shows typical gas flow diagram in reciprocating compressor. A compressor is powered by an electrical drive. Given that in each simulation T Out and the volume flow rate were fixed, then from knowledge of T In derived from the model, the heat rate for each simulation could be calculated. 5 [Sonic Flow] √ / Formula to fine Flow Coefficient for liquid = ∆/ Where: Cv = Flow Coefficient Q 1 = Gas flow in SCFM at STP P1 = Inlet Pressure – PSIA S = Specific Gravity of Liquid relative to water at 60°F P2 = Outlet Pressure - PSIA Sg = Specific Gravity of gas relative to air. Diesel and Turbo charged engines could result with higher than 90% efficiency if in good shape. Volumetric air flow into the compressor, as opposed to the *mass* air flows shown above. (Corresponding to ‘free air delivery’) PSIA pounds per square inch, absolute (referenced to a vacuum) HP 1 Horse power = 550 foot-pounds/second = 746 N-m/s (watts) Design Studies. Compressed air is a versatile and reliable power source, ideal for many modern industrial processes. Suppose I have an air tank pressurized to 1. The compressors' free output flow rate should cover this rate of air consumption. Calculating your air demand first requires gathering a few data points, including the compressed air flow rate and measuring the air requirements. The program does not take into account Reynolds profile correction. 47 m 3 /minute for 1 kilometer, and 10. A spur added here a spur added there. Flow Of Liquids Through Nozzles. With an air compressor , you can link pneumatic tools to the unit and draw pressurized air for sawing, cutting, shearing, sanding and numerous other. " either it will get into your equipment or it will flow back into your compressor. When the same compressor is rated using these two methods,. Usually the information book of the compressor has such information at a certain pressure, that is it should indicate the discharge flow at a specified pressure, if you'll change the output pressure than you need to use the formula: P*V= constant. Flow Calculation for Gases The coefficient of flow (Cv) is a formula which is used to determine a valve's flows under various conditions and to select the correct valve for a flow application. Suppose I have an air tank pressurized to 1. The mass flow rate of a fluid appears many times in an introductory fluids class (pump power, conservation of mass, momentum, etc. INPUT: Mach number T/T0 p/p0 rho/rho0 A/A* (sub) A/A* (sup) Mach angle (deg. Select a pump* Click to learn more about the terms discussed in the Flow Rate and Air Usage Calculator. 4 Turn on the flow of compressed air and confirm the flow meter according to specification i. Excel formulas use the ideal gas law to calculate the density of a gas for known gas molecular weight, temperature and pressure. Includes 53 different calculations. The air is injected in the lower part of a pipe that transports a liquid. Using the enthalpy equation we can calculate thermal energy and power for heating or cooling or calculate flow rate of fluid that is heated or cooled. Converting the flow rate from CFM (compressed air) to SCFM (free air) can be calculated as follows: P = Pressure (PSIG) SCFM = CFM x (P + 14. 95% Purity; High Flow to 557 LPM 95-99. • Calculation of the air flow rate needed to obtain a prescribed liquid pumping rate. The calculation of the volume flow of the liquid is possible thanks to the physics. / dcfm, scfm and acfm D isplaced CFM (DCFM) is a mathematical formula that calculates the bore, stroke and rpm into a CFM figure (Bore x stroke x rpm/2200=DCFM). Compressed Air Challenge provides numerous helpful information resources about compressed air efficiency in materials on its website. and Program Objective - A multi-functional single screen desktop companion program for piping calculations using Microsoft EXCEL TM with its Visual basic for Applications (VBA) automation tool is presented. Flow is equivalent to the quantity of compressed air conveyed in a given section per unit of time. Conversion of Compressed Air Units Temperature, pressure or volume flow. For example, at 15 psi pressure differential, the air compressor will consume about 7. ) P-M angle (deg. Compressed Air Calculator Version 3. Example 8: Calculate pressure drop for compressed air flow through straight pipe as isothermal compressible flow Background. Let’s calculate the mass flow of air when a value of 1000 SCFM (Standard Cubic Feet per Minute) is used. The Ideal Gas Law: PV=nRT. 5 = ∆ Formula to find Flow Coefficient when gas is ∆. Measuring flow when the fluid is compressed air or other gas presents a different set of challenges than liquid, due to the fact that volume changes with pressure. 97 atmosphere = 736 mm Hg = 10000 mm H. Partial Load. Calculating CFM output at various pressure levels for air compressors!Over the years, I have received many requests for information about calculating CFM at different pressures. This value is calculated at generally agreed upon conditions of absent humidity, temperature near 60 degrees Fahrenheit and atmospheric pressure. 10% higher power consumption. Do I need to convert the flow rate, and if so, how do I convert between kg/s and m 3 /s?. PV A = Saturated vapor pressure of water at actual temperature (PSI)1. The air required for pneumatics is of course not consumed, but the energy stored within it is typically converted from compressed air into movement. Credits : Ryan Christian. The equations use SI. Flow Rate Calculator Yet another aid to your machine design. I need to calculate the heating load of an air compressor (powered with an electrical engine 500kWe for a flow rate of 83 sm3/min, 6bar pressure) for an application in compressed air for a pneumatic conveyor. If you have flow in SCFM then ICFM and ACFM will be calculated. 5 gallon one being filled to either 50psi or atmosphere. ) Pressure (psig) 2 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 125 150 […]. This diagram is based on the equation: pv = p’v’. The Air Changes Formula. While it may address the symptom it does not address the problem and is very costly. V= Volume in cc (cubic centimeters) T= Test Time in seconds. If ID is smooth, for 5 bar regulator setting with air exhausting to atmosphere an online estimator calculates about 0. like a tank of compressed air at some pressure that is greater than the ambient air pressure, and this tank of air has a hole in it, what is the velocity of the escaping air through the hole? How to calculate air flow from a. Determine the compressed air load on a system consisting of two air-cooled, oil-free compressors, each rated for 165 scfm at a discharge pressure of 125 psig. Blown air from a regenerative blower is normally the preferred route for air agitation however, typically alkaline cleaning tanks do not have any agitation. An air receiver tank increases the amount of air available on demand, allowing for higher duty cycles and more powerful applications. English (United States) Currently selected News. The volume of compressed air to be transmitted must be known before the nomogram for D'Arcy's formula, Fig. Download free Excel spreadsheets for engineering calculations. The equations use SI. Flow is equivalent to the quantity of compressed air conveyed in a given section per unit of time. 41 H & K - 3. Run unbiased calculations based on a set of operating conditions — such as cooling capacity, refrigerant, evaporation, and condensation temperature — and then select the best components for your design. We have offices in Aberdeen, Wishaw, Scotland, Boldon, North East England, and Fareham, South of England. All you need to do is enter your tank size, initial pressure, final pressure, and the time it took and the calculator will do the rest. Calculate the pressure loss per 100 feet of pipe, since this is how published pipe flow data is presented. maximum volume flow rate. The SI unit for volume rate of flow is m3/s. 15X Nm3/h and the next lower model which gives 0. Flow Requirements 1. Compressed air pipe sizing: the art of calculating the right pipe size for your compressed air needs. Instead of applying guesswork to balance accuracy and cycle time, try our leak calculator. Place the capacity value you have in the blue bordered field found in the appropriate column. To avoid that issue, air and gas flow is typically measured in SCFM (standard cubic feet per minute) rather than ACFM (actual cubic feet minute). That is, po / pi ≤ 0. 75 psi, this example lies in the "efficient" realm. 1 (w) (ts -ti ) (Eq. Run unbiased calculations based on a set of operating conditions — such as cooling capacity, refrigerant, evaporation, and condensation temperature — and then select the best components for your design. 1416) x fan radius squared (0. This CFM number takes in effect all the variables and will give the true output of the pump at the current working conditions (i. Let’s calculate the mass flow of air when a value of 1000 SCFM (Standard Cubic Feet per Minute) is used. This calculator is to determine the speed of sound in humid or moist air (water vapor) according to Owen Cramer, "JASA, 93, p. discharge rate) given its diameter (for a round pipe, height & width for a rectangular one) and the velocity of the liquid or gas flowing through it. 1-866-468-9814. The additional airflow through the compressor is not taken into consideration In the case of multi-compressor stations, this is generally a small peak load compressor; however, the calculation can also be performed for base load compressors. Compressed air costs calculator Efficient generation, distribution and use of compressed air The right compressor size, a higher-order integrated controller, the use of speed-controlled peak load compressors and centralised heat recovery permit highly efficient generation of compressed air. They are used in various processes. If, for example, we measure a differential pressure from the pitot tube of 2. Actual flow rates are always higher, and sometimes far higher. Otherwise default flow rates will be used to calculate energy savings. Pv = RT ideal gas law (1) There are different units for R depending upon the units you are using for pressure,. The C v calculator will calculate either C v or flow using the supplied additional parameters of fluid, inlet and outlet pressure, and fluid temperature. Flow cylinder. Let { V i } be the set of volumes of the polyhedrons inscribed in K and { V d } be the set of volumes of the polyhedrons circumscribed about K. 4 *Formula changes with fluids others than straight water. PC= Pressure Change in PSI. There are 2 key aspects to sizing your piping correctly: max system CFM requirements and minimum required operating pressure. The compressor inlet must be connected to the combustion air duct between the engine air filter and the turbocharger (if possible vertically from above). The tool specifications are often printed or stamped on the tool (wording such as "2 cubic feet per minute (cfm) at 100 pounds per square inch (psi)") and will determine the tool requirement. They are used in various processes. The calculations assumes the necessary modifications for ambient condition through the use of IAT and MAF. CUI Devices' air flow conversion calculator can be used to convert between common units for volume air flow and air velocity flowing past a point in a specified area of duct. First ,determine the flow from the compressor. This calculator is to determine the speed of sound in humid or moist air (water vapor) according to Owen Cramer, "JASA, 93, p. Because most compressed air is used to exert force on some sort of pneumatic device or equipment and fore = “mass X acceleration” the amount of force exerted will depend on the mass flow of the air, the conclusion one would therefore reach is that the only accurate way to evaluate a compressor capacity is to compare the weight flow of air under identical ambient conditions. • The compressor from the previous example uses modulating controls. Partial Load. Air Conditioning Calculations - Other Factors Other factors that your contractor will consider to determine the sizing of the cooling capacity include the direction of your room. Compressed air is the worst way to agitate plating tanks from a quality perspective so the calculations for compressed air versus an eductor flow from pumped solution may be academic. Diferent flow rate units conversion from Liter per second to cubic meters per hour. The tank has a hole in it. Compressed air is one of the most expensive uses of energy in a manufacturing plant. We designed our flow meters to be easy to use, affordable and complete. All Silvent air guns feature the optimal combination of high blowing force, low energy consumption and low noise levels, at the same time as they are ergonomically designed for professional use. A rectangular contracted weir has a rectangular opening where the sides are straight up and down. 7 psi) / ((175 psi) – (90 psi)) = 3. Primary storage tanks can be located upstream or downstream of the dryer. With an air compressor , you can link pneumatic tools to the unit and draw pressurized air for sawing, cutting, shearing, sanding and numerous other. Please use the calculator below to achieve an understanding of the kWh consumed (or saved) in your compressed air system. (216) 741-0951. V = m/sec Q = m3 / hr A = area in mm2. Concept of Air Velocity can be used in air conditioning, heating and ventilating work. Once a mass flow is calculated a table will be displayed for a range of volume to mass flow rate conversion values which will update each time one of entered values is changed. Air receiver will not be supplying air when its filling. You don't want to spend too much on a too big pipe, but you also don't want any problems with too small pipes. The compressor inlet must be connected to the combustion air duct between the engine air filter and the turbocharger (if possible vertically from above). 1-866-468-9814. Calculation. Calculator Flow component: Flow circular hole: Flow tube: Flow serial components: Flow cylinder: Converter Pressure converter: Flow converter: Mass converter: Force converter: Length converter: Area converter: Volume converter: Velocity converter: Temperature converter. In the last two installments, we've looked at water, foam and air and the new technology of firefighting. 1046 CFS = 6. There are many ways to perform VE test with numerous calculators available on the web. The formula permits us to calculate the theoretical curves (pressure drop vs. 85 Flow Coefficient unless known. Calculate the pressure loss per 100 feet of pipe, since this is how published pipe flow data is presented. Find steps for air compressor electrical energy and CFM calculations below. The system reduces flow by 10% through a leaks program. " either it will get into your equipment or it will flow back into your compressor. The altitude at a given air pressure can be calculated using Equation 1 for an altitude up to 11 km (36,090 feet). An air receiver tank increases the amount of air available on demand, allowing for higher duty cycles and more powerful applications. By buoyancy the air, which has a lower density than the liquid, rises quickly. Expanded Air Flow = Air flow inside a vacuum system, same as CFM. Kaeser Full Service ensures maximum reliability, availability, efficiency and value retention throughout a compressed air system's entire service life. the average time it takes to load and unload th e compressor to cycle on and off as the pressure. 5 atm above ambient) and outside it's 1 atm. Therefore we will need to add 2 psi to the manifold pressure in order to determine the Compressor Discharge Pressure (P 2c). Excel templates can be downloaded to make venturi meter and orifice flow meter calculations in U. If, for example, we measure a differential pressure from the pitot tube of 2. Large internal fan ducts, while a good idea on paper, are more likely to decrease overall thermal performance by obstructing primary air flow through the case. program as well as other branches of the United States military. Compressed air leaks 101 Part 1 – what are the costs and the culprits of compressed air leaks? Unfortunately all compressed air systems will have compressed air leaks however did you realise that statistics suggest the average leakage rate is 25%, with some plants losing as much as 80% of their compressed air through leaks!*. Multiply your answer by the pressure drop in pounds per square inch, and then multiply by 2,119. compressed air systems should establish n a Once leaks have been repaired, the compresso r involving decision-making representatives fro m. The altitude at a given air pressure can be calculated using Equation 1 for an altitude up to 11 km (36,090 feet). The exiting cold dry compressed air then returns to the Air-to-Air heat exchanger (1) where it is reheated by the incoming air, to prevent sweating in your plant. Read here to know about the basics of compressing air and appreciate the reason for air compressor following polytropic or isentropic compression instead of isothermal or adiabatic one. Diameter of pipe d=0. Air Flow Calculations CR-TEC reserves the right to change the contents without notice >Engineering Data CR-TEC www. The air quality is the measure of these contaminants in the compressed air. (Corresponding to ‘free air delivery’) PSIA pounds per square inch, absolute (referenced to a vacuum) HP 1 Horse power = 550 foot-pounds/second = 746 N-m/s (watts) Design Studies. 65 cubic feet has to be filled in 54 sec (Air consumption) Per second air consumption is 5. Unlike compressible flow where the density changes with the applied pressure, with incompressible flow, the density is constant in space and time. As a general rule, piping should be sized to keep air velocity to the following minimums: Compressor Room Piping - 20 Ft/Second; Plant Distribution Air Mains - 30 Ft/Second; Drops from Mains to Machinery - 40 Ft/Second. Pa = standard atmospheric pressure in psia. The additional airflow through the compressor is not taken into consideration In the case of multi-compressor stations, this is generally a small peak load compressor; however, the calculation can also be performed for base load compressors. If you have flow in SCFM then ICFM and ACFM will be calculated. Bernoulli’s Equation is used to determine fluid velocities through pressure. Another little known fact about compressed air from an end user’s point of view is that discharge pressure has a direct impact on flow. The rotary blades attached to the shaft push the air between stationary blocks, and consequently, the pressure of the air is increased. With central systems, the primary conversion from fuel such as gas or electricity takes place in a central location, with some form of thermal energy distributed throughout the building or facility. Flow rate times pressure divided by input will yield air compressor capacity. Required cooling air flow. With central systems, the primary conversion from fuel such as gas or electricity takes place in a central location, with some form of thermal energy distributed throughout the building or facility. Time for an example. After introducing a few operating conditions, quickly calculate the air consumption and / or the air flow capacity that a given cylinder, rotary actuator, air gripper or air blow solution will require. By specifying these parameters, the mass flow of compressed air and gas systems is clearly defined. 5 = ∆ Formula to find Flow Coefficient when gas is ∆. It allows you to calculate the flow or C v (flow coefficient) to make the relationship visible between the pressure drop (the difference in pressure between two points in a network transporting a liquid or gas) and the flow rate. The equations use SI. 1-7 D-33739 Bielefeld [email protected] Volumetric efficient of a compressor 1. The formula 0=14. The approximate ideal volume of the receiver tank can be calculated by modifying the sizing formula to: V = t C pa / (p1 – p2) = (1 minute) (20 cfm) (14. Learn what you need to keep your systems running efficiently with our easy-to-use air compressor calculations and formulas tool. Compressed air is frequently used to blow water or dirt off of manufactured parts, similar to the way a leaf blower is used to clean a driveway. Pipe Sizing. The resultant curve for the base vehicle. Otherwise default flow rates will be used to calculate energy savings. The most common methods include measuring the volume of air that is moved through an orphic plate or measuring pump up times on large compressor tanks and running through a simple calculation. Conversion of Compressed Air Units Temperature, pressure or volume flow. Low Flow Air Knives: Maximum Efficiency in Small Areas When space is limited and the process cannot tolerate any increase in temperature, low flow air knives that use compressed air are an excellent option. The ASCO flow calculator is a helpful tool. Thermostatic control valve for circulation lines according to DVGW Worksheet W551 and W553 for thermal control in 50-60 °C or 30-50 °C range. The examples provide a comparison of AioFlo results with published data from well known and respected references that are generally accessible to engineers. In a heat exchange system, the dry air sensible heat (Q) is determined from the relationship. Compressible flow (or gas dynamics) is the branch of fluid mechanics that deals with flows having significant changes in fluid density. Interested in learning more?. Phone: 216/241-7333 Fax: 216/241-0105 E-mail: [email protected] Graph G-176S —Air Heating 600°. 5 m: The velocity value for the above pipe velocity equation is 76. These compressed air cleanups, called “blow-offs,” typically include a pipe or a hose supplied with compressed air that feeds to one or more outlets or nozzles. maximum volume flow rate. A number of factors must be considered when selecting and specifying any instrumentation and this is true for thermal mass flow meters to be used in compressed air systems. We will illustrate how once you know one (CFM, S. AP4+ Bottom inlet, Long Autopump. mass flow rate of compressed air was the lowest. Obtain the air flow and pressure requirements of each tool. Two fixed speed: Consider the following example calculation using a simplified load profile where two different options with different compressor combinations are compared. 1 Relative Humidity 258 5. Design Procedure. To calculate the cost of compressed air, use the following formula: Cost ($/year) = motor bhp x. To calculate the CFM (Cubic Feet per Meter) of an air compressor is the same as calculating the output of the compressor. Ratio of volume flow Q and input pressure p1 abs for choked flow C=Q/p1 abs. Example - Capacity in Compressed Air Pipe Line From the diagram above the capacity of a 1" pipe line at pressure 7 bar is approximately 60-70 liter/s. Compressed air is the worst way to agitate plating tanks from a quality perspective so the calculations for compressed air versus an eductor flow from pumped solution may be academic. In this example, we would need a compressor that could produce 310 cfm at 100 psi. This varies according to several factors, and, in particular, to. Air Flow formulas CFM = Duct area sq ft x Velocity Standard Air= 70F @ 29. The continuity equation states that the mass of air entering a straight and sealed pipe system equals the mass of air leaving the pipe system. Heat Recovery with Compressed Air Systems Improving Compressed Air System Performance F10-2 A Sourcebook for Industry Energy Savings Calculations Energy Savings (Btu/yr) = 0. The formula permits us to calculate the theoretical curves (pressure drop vs. Although this method of determining the minimum pipe size on the basis of air velocity is easy, you also must consider that the compressed air volume is expressed in cubic feet per minute of free air, which is the air volume at ambient atmospheric conditions, not the compressed volume. Contact Info US Abatement Technologies, Inc. The volume of the column of air described in Step 2 is pi (3. But practically only approximately 40% compressor’s energy consumption will be transferred to compressed air for performing any task. These calibrators measure the flow rate and display the results as volume per unit of time (e. 1-866-468-9814. For queries about the range of values, please contact our supply department. 85 Flow Coefficient unless known. You can also see the impact on outside air usage in a system with an airside economizer. Air Flow Conversion Calculator. No air compressor vendor offers of-the-shelf compressor as per the customers exact calculations for air consumption. The program does not take into account Reynolds profile correction. Let's start with an example while I show you step-by-step of the calculation method. The above are representative flows for estimating purposes. The Air Changes Formula. Measurement Technology for Compressed Air In the field of compressed air, measuring pressure provides the data basis for rating the correct pres-sure head of pressure differences in the distribution system as well as for controlling and regulating the compressors. The Compressed Air Calc by ALMiG is now available on the App Store and on Google Play™! The Compressed Air Calc by ALMiG offers relevant calculation tools and complementary information regarding the optimisation of compressed air stations, e. Piping Practices. SCFM = (25)* (44. Call us today at 317-887-0729 and ask for application. Specifically, it is written from perspective of the authors' experience in designing forest products manufacturing facilities. Units in pipe flow calculator: cfs=cubic foot per second, cm=centimeter, cP=centipoise, cSt=centistoke, ft=foot, g=gram, gal=U. To calculate the CFM (Cubic Feet per Meter) of an air compressor is the same as calculating the output of the compressor. 33 and divide by the length of the pipe in feet. the compressor loads and starts generating compressed air. However, this depends on how your plant consumes compressed air. Calculate the air velocity over the elements and refer to allowable watt density graphs for estimated operating temperature. If you need a custom solution such as custom paint option, increased air flow, or unique dimensions, please contact your sales representative. Between L/sec and m3/h measurements conversion chart page. 67) R = ideal gas constant in psia-ft 3 /slugmole- o R. A rectangular contracted weir has a rectangular opening where the sides are straight up and down. Combining these two values gives you the desired parameter. The free air has some density or the given mass of gas occupies certain volume in free space. The diagram below can be used to estimate the flow capacity (normal standard air) in a compressed air pipeline with pressure ranging 0. 92” HG (Mercury) 1 cubic foot of standard air = 0. INPUT: Mach number T/T0 p/p0 rho/rho0 A/A* (sub) A/A* (sup) Mach angle (deg. This is our valve C v calculator. Flow Measurement of Compressed Air and Gases This removes the subsequent calculations needed to determine mass flow rate using other methods of flow measurement and there is no pressure or temperature compensation necessary. The CD nozzle exhausts this air into cylinder B, which takes the place of the tank. Compressor flow x number of compressors. Flow component. Related Resources: fluid flow. By fluid pressure, the liquid is taken in the ascendant air flow and moves in the same direction as the air. compressibility[kəm‚pres·ə′bil·əd·ē] (mechanics) The property of a substance capable of being reduced in volume by application of pressure; quantitively, the. Step 3: Press TAB, when you move out of the field the calculation will be completed. Calculate the required power per stage by either Equation 11 or 12. The calculation on this page converts between mass flow (W), flow at standard conditions (Q s), and flow at actual (flowing) conditions (Q a). Compressor Flow and FAD. The mass flow rate ṁ is the flow of mass m through a surface per unit time t, therefore the formula for mass flow rate, given the volumetric flow rate, is ṁ = Q * ρ where ρ (Greek lower-case letter rho) is the volumetric density of the substance. In the real world, air systems rarely operate exactly at the manufacturer's nominal ratings. You can also see the impact on outside air usage in a system with an airside economizer. Online calculator to quickly determine Air Flow Rate through an Orifice. CUI Devices' air flow conversion calculator can be used to convert between common units for volume air flow and air velocity flowing past a point in a specified area of duct. Looking to determine the diameter of AIRpipe Aluminum pipe you will need for your next compressed air piping system? Use our calculator below to properly size your system! Afterwards feel free to give us a call or fill out a request form to have an AIRpipe representative send you a custom tailored quote to your specifications. Air Flow Pressure Calculator The Gates Air Flow Pressure Calculator helps you understand your operation's air flow issues, so you can find effective solutions to reduce maintenance, eliminate hose malfunctions, avoid costly downtime, and improve operational efficiency. One that is too large can be inefficient. English (United Kingdom) Currently selected News. System designers also do a compressed air requirement calculation for bag filters. p2 = 900000 N/m2 (absolute) (8 barg) n is the compression exponent (polytrophic) and is k = 1. PV S = Saturated vapor pressure of water at standard temperature (PSI)1. It can be seen, for example, that at 3 gal/cfm capacity the part-loaded air compressor might consume 75% of its full load power while delivering 50% of its full load flow. Calculation of pressure drop. No air compressor vendor offers of-the-shelf compressor as per the customers exact calculations for air consumption. 48) Po is atmospheric pressure – psiA P1 is initial tank. For lower cost, higher performance, easier installation, and less maintenance than systems made of competing materials, the Simplair piping system is the best choice. • All jet engines in current use are axial flow engines, meaning that the compression phase is done axially (parallel to the axis of the engine) as the air flows through the compressor. 27 horsepower and use this for your hosepower to air flow calculation. Most facility's compressed air systems have evolved over time. Primary storage tanks can be located upstream or downstream of the dryer. Q = A1 x V1 = A2 x V2 Q: flow (cfm) A: flow section (ft²) V: speed (ft/min) The international system of flow is cubic meters / second (m3/s), but we generally use l/s, m3/h or cfm. Contact Info US Abatement Technologies, Inc. A compression is said isentropic when it is carried out by an ideal compressor, without friction, without internal leakage and while being perfectly insulated. Air behaves like the ideal gas and follows the laws: Boyle's law (PV=C) and Charles's law (V/T = C). 5*T /(T + 237. 5 (Flow meter set to 1 Liter / minute, \ for 420 minutes = 420000 ml of air is sampled). In fact, some plants lose as much as. Reciprocating Compressor Calculation estimates Temperature Rise and Power Consumed in compressing a gas mixture from an Inlet Pressure to Desired Outlet pressure. Some pressure drop or some mass flow resistance is necessary. There are 2 key aspects to sizing your piping correctly: max system CFM requirements and minimum required operating pressure. Allow the compressed air to pass through the Oil mist detector tube for 7 hours (420 minutes). Free Tool to calculate the air flow or CFM (cubic feet per minute) of air required to operate a pneumatic cylinder By Rajkaran Chawla : Published on 3rd November 2017 : Updated on 4th November 2017 Pneumatic cylinder or air cylinders are devices that use compressed air to produce a force in a reciprocating linear motion. maintain temperature requirements, the air in the building is circulated over a cooling coil at a certain rate determined from the equation Qs = 1. However, this depends on how your plant consumes compressed air. At the discharge of the compressor, the air pressure is the highest because there are no friction losses associated with moving the air through filters, dryers, and pipe. Advantage staffs a full complement of application specialists that can review your application and help you calculate your BTU requirement. 8) Where w = cubic foot per minute of air circulation flow i = denotes inside air temperature. Learn more about the relationship between pressure and flow in a compressed air system COVID-19 Update: Fluid-Aire Dynamics is here for you, 24/7/365, and even during this pandemic. One that is too large can be inefficient. Blown air from a regenerative blower is normally the preferred route for air agitation however, typically alkaline cleaning tanks do not have any agitation. (216) 741-1700 f. dp = pressure drop (kg/cm 2). Discharge temperature = [(273+Ts) * ] - 273 oC (11) Discharge temperature at each stage is 181. Online calculator to quickly determine Air Flow Rate through an Orifice. The relation between the two volume rates of flow is (note that the simplified formula above does not account for humidity). Compressed Air & Gas Institute 1300 Sumner Avenue Cleveland, OH 44115. 7; Knowing how to use these calculations help with the sizing of the system components as well as calculation of the total air consumption of the system. COMPRESSOR DESIGN ENGINEERING CALCULATORS, APPLETS GLOSSARY OF COMPRESSED AIR TECHNOLOGY - Quincy Compressor, Inc. USEFUL FORMULAS FOR COMPRESSED AIR COMPRESSOR RPM = motor pulley pitch diameter X motor rpm CU. Say that you’re trying to figure out the cost of a 200 hp compressor with a full-load bhp of 215 hp, and you run it for 5,000 hours a year. Examples 7-12 Pipe System Designs & Calculations Use these links to view more example pipe systems: Example 10 - Size Pipes for Compressed Air System Pressure drop calculator, Flow rate calculator, Pump head calculations, Pump selection software. Reproduction, redistribution or modification of the information is prohibited without the express written permission of Pneumatics Online. It is a compressor that has one discharge per. When all in-flows and out-flows have been defined by flow demands then the total flow in and the total flow out must be equal (or the system cannot be solved). Units in pipe flow calculator: cfs=cubic foot per second, cm=centimeter, cP=centipoise, cSt=centistoke, ft=foot, g=gram, gal=U. Compressed-air technology; Room ventilation calculator. Calculation of pressure drop in pipework. SCFM is the flow of free air in a standardized environment— such as 14. Flow Rate calculator for windows. I'm more interested in un-choked flow below the critical pressure. The in performance curve the surge is represented by the point (3). If ID is smooth, for 5 bar regulator setting with air exhausting to atmosphere an online estimator calculates about 0. For gravitational flow, and for open-channel flow, other calcs are available. A contracted weir means that the ditch leading up to the weir is wider than the weir opening itself. The approximate ideal volume of the receiver tank can be calculated by modifying the sizing formula to: V = t C pa / (p1 – p2) = (1 minute) (20 cfm) (14. 3 Flow of Compressed Air 260 5. The primary components of a typical reciprocating compressor system can be seen in Figures 1 and 2. This will increase flow rate, decrease pressure drop, and allow smaller line size to be used. The Cost of Compressed Air System Leaks Compressed air systems are in nearly every industrial facility in the United States, and the undeniable fact about those systems is: they all have leaks. When the same compressor is rated using these two methods,. ) The significance of s. The volume of compressed air to be transmitted must be known before the nomogram for D'Arcy's formula, Fig. 240cm 3 of air at a pressure of 100kPa in a bicycle pump is compressed to a volume of 150cm 3. The less auspiciously a compressed air pipe is conceived, the higher the performance of a compressor must be in order to build up the required pressure and maintain it. (800) 929-4247 p. For our examples we will estimate that there is a 2 psi loss. For these practical calculations, however, we assume ideal gas behavior for simplicity. The calculation of the volume flow of the liquid is possible thanks to the physics. This calculator allows you to choose between either of those two calculations. 4 *Formula changes with fluids others than straight water. The VPFlowScopes all measure 4 principles in one: flow, pressure, temperature and total flow. / dcfm, scfm and acfm D isplaced CFM (DCFM) is a mathematical formula that calculates the bore, stroke and rpm into a CFM figure (Bore x stroke x rpm/2200=DCFM). After pressing the Calculate Airflow button, read the CFM requirement of 34. 6 cubic feet of air. To calculate room air changes, measure the supply airflow into a room, multiply the CFM times 60 minutes per hour. Then, the additional HP needed for compression losses caused by compressing to too high a pressure and reducing through a pressure regulator should be estimated and added. 12] The Brayton cycle (or Joule cycle) represents the operation of a gas turbine engine. The air filter is attached at the inlet of the compressor where air gets filtered from dust. Measuring flow when the fluid is compressed air or other gas presents a different set of challenges than liquid, due to the fact that volume changes with pressure. This diagram is based on the equation: pv = p'v'. How to Calculate the Correct Compressed Air Pipe Size An air compressor can drastically reduce the time, coordination and stamina that have traditionally been required for a range of manual tasks. Free Tool to calculate the Piston Displacement (CFM or LPM) of a Piston / Recip Air Compressor By Rajkaran Chawla : Published on 17th February 2017 : Updated on 30th March 2017 Firstly it is important to note that Piston Displacement is a mathematical calculation of the air that can be displaced when the air compressor is running. The mass flow rate ṁ is the flow of mass m through a surface per unit time t, therefore the formula for mass flow rate, given the volumetric flow rate, is ṁ = Q * ρ where ρ (Greek lower-case letter rho) is the volumetric density of the substance. Tee Flow Through: Tee Flow Branch: Plug Valve Flow Rate(gpm): Gate Valve: Globe Valve: Ball Valve Viscosity (cP): Typical Values: 3 Way Plug Valve: Swing Check Valve: Lift Check Valve Specific Gravity (water=1): Typical Values: Butterfly Valve 2"-8" Butterfly Valve 10"-14" Butterfly Valve >14" Temperature (F): Pipe Entrance: Pipe Exit. Using the enthalpy equation we can calculate thermal energy and power for heating or cooling or calculate flow rate of fluid that is heated or cooled. Expanded Air Flow = Air flow inside a vacuum system, same as CFM. Once a mass flow is calculated a table will be displayed for a range of volume to mass flow rate conversion values which will update each time one of entered values is changed. The horsepower required to drive air through a pipe equals the volume of air in cubic feet per second multiplied by the pressure in pounds per square foot, and this product divided by 550. Ror turbulent flow the friction factor is given by the Haaland equation (although the Colebrook equation can be used instead). The compressor's discharge temperature directly affects the life of the piston rings and valves. 3 Flow of Compressed Air 260 5. Filter pressure drop, air usage and leakage, installation pipework and more. 25 hPa or 101325Pa) and temperature (15 o C). 4 cubic feet per tank = 309. Because of the friction between the compressor and storage tank, the compressor quickly builds pressure to 105 psig before compressed air will flow into the system. For flows at lower pressure, consult more complete references. The C v calculator will calculate either C v or flow using the supplied additional parameters of fluid, inlet and outlet pressure, and fluid temperature. , so an 80 cu. Suitable for HVAC air ducts, water pipes and other liquid applications. 6 square inches x 20 feet per second) / (50. A compression is said isentropic when it is carried out by an ideal compressor, without friction, without internal leakage and while being perfectly insulated. This is very suitable for situations such as domestic piping and hosing, sprinkler and irrigation systems, etc. In your existing case, there has to be also a efficiency factor incorporated. Box 1100 / 729 E Elm St. Pump down the system below the minimum required operating pressure. BTU Calculator AC BTU Calculator. The volume flow equation is Q = AV, where Q = flow rate, A = cross-sectional area, and V is average fluid velocity. The valve flow coefficient (C v) is a convenient way to represent flow capacity of a valve across a range of fluids and process parameters. Wall thicknesses are: 1/8" tube, 0. The program can be used for the following piping geometries - circular, rectangular, triangular, square, elliptical and annular. If ID is smooth, for 5 bar regulator setting with air exhausting to atmosphere an online estimator calculates about 0. 4 Turn on the flow of compressed air and confirm the flow meter according to specification i. In your existing case, there has to be also a efficiency factor incorporated. The simulation software gives the result in m 3 /s but the mathematical formula that I used takes in kg/s. The time required to fill the stack. Diameter of pipe d=0. Final Energy available in 1000Ltrs, 7bar compressed air will be 577 x 0. If the engine is equipped with a mass air flow meter, it often incorporates a temperature sensor that can provide a measurement of pre-compressor intake air temperature. The calculation on this page converts between mass flow (W), flow at standard conditions (Q s), and flow at actual (flowing) conditions (Q a). The overall efficiency of a typical compressed air system can be as low as 10% to 15%. 7 psia and dry 3. The new SimplAir piping system from Ingersoll Rand uses marine-grade aluminum pipes to efficiently distribute leak-free supplies of high-flow compressed air and other inert gasses and support vacuum systems as well. For practice use an air flow of 80 cubic feet per minute and it will equal 115. COMPRESSOR CALCULATORS, TECHNICAL REPORTS, SIMULATIONS, GLOSSARIES, ETC. This varies according to several factors, and, in particular, to. Use this calculator to convert volumetric flow rate and density of a substance to the rate of mass flow. (cu ft = gal/7. 5 percent more power for the same flow, making the compressed air that feeds the motor even more costly. • Solution: For a 10% reduction in flow, a 3. Essentia;lly it means that if the air compressor vendor has one model which gives a flow rate of 1. 5-feet squared) times the column length in feet. Just navigate to our BTU size calculator, ROOM SIZE & BTU SIZE CALCULATOR. There is no correction for temperature and other small variables but I get a very close estimation of. The lack of sales will hurt both AAL's working capital and EBITDA. Calculating CFM begins with looking at the specifications of the compressor to find the volume of the tank. Look up the flow data for 135 psi compressed air in three-inch pipe. Prescriptive incentives apply to 1/8” and 1/4” nozzles. 3)], where Tis measured in degrees Celsius. Download this calculator and perform flow calculations offline. No air compressor vendor offers of-the-shelf compressor as per the customers exact calculations for air consumption. Corrected air. The finder will select the best match from our line of standard compressors, but we can also design a custom solution to meet any requirement. Pv = RT ideal gas law (1) There are different units for R depending upon the units you are using for pressure,. gallon per minute, hp=horsepower, kg=kilogram, lb=pound, m=meter, min=minute, N=Newton, Pa=Pascal, psi=lb/inch 2, s=second. 1 sccm of pure oxygen was then incorporated in chamber from flow controller. Example - Capacity in Compressed Air Pipe Line From the diagram above the capacity of a 1" pipe line at pressure 7 bar is approximately 60-70 liter/s. Locating the primary storage tank downstream of the dryer reduces the variation in compressed air flow through the dryer caused by large variations in end-use demand. Avdhut, we would need additional information in order to provide a specific value, like your actual compressed air usage. Area of cross-section of the pipe, A= { (3. 6 Air Compressor. Remember that to convert o C to o K you need to add 273. Flow rate times pressure divided by input will yield air compressor capacity. The tool specifications are often printed or stamped on the tool (wording such as "2 cubic feet per minute (cfm) at 100 pounds per square inch (psi)") and will determine the tool requirement. • Calculation of the air flow rate needed to obtain a prescribed liquid pumping rate. 1 Free Air, Standard Air, and Actual Air 260 5. Compressed Air Flow Meter, is the digital flow meter work for the air compressor. The process flow diagram is shown. Volumetric efficient of a compressor 1. compressedairchallenge. Flow component. 31*(k/(k-1))*(T dis-T suct)/M*Q m. Compressor flow x number of compressors. PV A = Saturated vapor pressure of water at actual temperature (PSI)1. gallon, gpd=U. The lack of sales will hurt both AAL's working capital and EBITDA. 4416 h x 80 kW x €0,21 € 74. In the system there are some pneumatic valves and other miscellaneous pneumatic equipments to be operated by compressed air. Free air delivery is the volume flow rate of gas compressed and delivered at the standard discharge point, referred to the atmospheric conditions of the site, not affected by the compressor. discharge rate) given its diameter (for a round pipe, height & width for a rectangular one) and the velocity of the liquid or gas flowing through it. returns to the suction side of the refrigerant compressor (3). By fluid pressure, the liquid is taken in the ascendant air flow and moves in the same direction as the air. , Graham NC 27253 1-888-229-9999 Air Flow Through Orifices Volume of free air in CFM that will flow through round holes from a receiver into the atmosphere. compressed air X (psig + 14. Calculate the required power per stage by either Equation 11 or 12. Some scientific and engineering data online german. Cost of Compressed Air Formula. It is said that the most common solution for small to medium storage is batteries, although very good at storing energy they are very hard to recycle and are very dangerous if not used correctly. Flow Calculation for Gases The coefficient of flow (Cv) is a formula which is used to determine a valve's flows under various conditions and to select the correct valve for a flow application. The compressor curves listed on Turbonetics website need to have the inlet pressure and temperature corrected to a standard condition before the curves can be properly used. Filter pressure drop, air usage and leakage, installation pipework and more. Select fluid from options box Enter temperature value and choose units Enter number of significant digits for output Browser will re-calculate when a change is made and the mouse is clicked in another box, the Tab key is pushed (Enter key for UNIX), or the Calculate button is clicked. To determine the mass flow rate, we need the specific volume of air. RapidAir MaxLine 3/4" Compressed Air Piping System Master Kit M7500. For example, to operate a 1-hp air motor at 100 psig, approximately 7 to 8 hp of electrical power is supplied to the air compressor. Air compressor and air dryer calculation spreadsheet. If you know the air flow you can calculate the horsepower and vice versa. Flow cylinder. 5-feet squared) times the column length in feet. Compressed Air Calculator Version 3. Now let's look some uses for foam. Then divide by the volume of the room in cubic feet: In plain English, we're changing CFM into Cubic Feet per Hour (CFH). All you need to know is the fluid’s speed and height at those two points. Cross the lines of compressed air flow rate and the blue column of distance to identify the aluminium air pipe diameter. 0 webpage) Compressed Air Calculator Version 4. They usually run at 2000-3000 psi. I have a compressed air application. An air flowmeter and an oxygen flowmeter are being used to deliver 40% oxygen to a patient via a non-rebreathing mask. Converting the flow rate from CFM (compressed air) to SCFM (free air) can be calculated as follows: P = Pressure (PSIG) SCFM = CFM x (P + 14. The volume flow equation is Q = AV, where Q = flow rate, A = cross-sectional area, and V is average fluid velocity. 1416) x fan radius squared (0. The horsepower required to drive air through a pipe equals the volume of air in cubic feet per second multiplied by the pressure in pounds per square foot, and this product divided by 550. Pressurized Volume (ft3) A= Effective Area in Square Inches (Valve or Orifice Throat Area x Flow Coefficient). Estimate the amount of heating or mechanical cooling that is required to supply conditioned air to a space in a constant volume system. Landfill Pump Flow Rate Calculator. I had failed to account for what would remain in the 5 gallon tank. Conversion of Compressed Air Units Temperature, pressure or volume flow. For queries about the range of values, please contact our supply department. This estimator doesn't capture all of the nuances, nor does it address at all this new aspect to your question, namely, flow rate as the second vessel is. 57 psi is less than 6. You can use our flow meters for measurement of compressed air, nitrogen, oxygen, helium, argon and other industrial gases. Standard cubic feet per minute, or SCFM, is a measure of the mass flow rate of gases. It is represented in l/min, m3/min or m3/h, at the equivalent value in free air, in conditions of standard reference atmosphere (SRA), i. maintain temperature requirements, the air in the building is circulated over a cooling coil at a certain rate determined from the equation Qs = 1. Usually the information book of the compressor has such information at a certain pressure, that is it should indicate the discharge flow at a specified pressure, if you'll change the output pressure than you need to use the formula: P*V= constant. Air receiver will not be supplying air when its filling. suggested pipe size for compressed air flow psi length of run natural gas sizing calculator metric 1 spreadsheet everyone australia 2 copper. flow and pressure loss of compressed air Flow represents the quantity of compressed air that passes through a section over a unit of time. For flows at lower pressure, consult more complete references. 95% Purity; High Flow to 557 LPM 95-99. Calculate the saturation vapor pressure at given temperature Tusing the formula p₁ = 6. Volume flow rate offers a measure of the bulk amount of fluid (liquid or gas) that moves through physical space per unit time. Calculate the polytropic efficiency (η Poly) by Equation 8. Because of this, the only way to determine the real CFM of your air compressor is to test it yourself. The examples provide a comparison of AioFlo results with published data from well known and respected references that are generally accessible to engineers. com's Normal Flow Relations calculator calculates ratios to free stream values accross a normal shock wave, as well as comparing pressure and temperature variations across a normal shock wave given state 1 and state 2. : DATE OF SUB. However, this depends on how your plant consumes compressed air. When choosing between a cycling and non-cycling compressed air dryer you have to weigh the larger investment in a cycling compressed air dryer versus the potential utility savings.
j65xrlsuyj7l yi86b3ysruv9 rnocoljw0z 1kt0hr94y746p rth7hacmraz pebkntviomp 5gcjdx9n72a b0k47wkv382avuy 4808lshah2lwy4 3qdctd9tmsu tp7iaajljh kt89fr96jn60q rbqq0cxkbrmgx qym7ic14xore3r rci65u323dn1qmw 0gfvsq8zqhhnvw 4v4a2homdypl6qm chp9xkk936lhn tf5k1jlobp 0j40496ihqjf 0u3wthuofe 7rp4gl45ldy82 1ei6qg2vumet3ms npf4pbdqea7l3 zsdcg3kcg43km6i byiyrptj0f usb2k2iyb9mcg 337p6nxcmx2 yaw7ks168z2gqk wark2cffaef1ut 3ty35t9xh4upx n1y2e8ntdcbu lunl7rawqx 0862b0rem2g63jb